This is a classification of affective and cognitive skills that is used to provide learning objectives. It was published by a committee of educators in the USA in 1956. Benjamin Bloom was the chair of this committee. The taxonomy of cognitive skills in particular has been very influential in curriculum and examination design. It was revised in 2000.
Bloom’s taxonomy identifies cognitive skills and divides them into two categories, as follows:
Higher order thinking skills (HOTS): creating, evaluating, analysing
Lower order thinking skills (LOTS): applying, understanding, remembering
Airasian, P. W.; Cruikshank, K. A.; Mayer, R. E.;Pintrich, P. R.; Raths, J.; Wittrock, M. C. (2000) in Anderson, Lorin W.;Krathwohl, D. R., eds. A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. Columbus, Ohio: Allyn and Bacon.
Bloom, B. S. et al. (1956) ‘Taxonomy of educational objectives’, Handbook I: Cognitive domain, New York: Longman.
Coyle, D., Hood P., Marsh, D. (2010). CLIL Content and Language Integrated Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Unrau, N. J. (1997). Thoughtful teachers, thoughtful learners. Scarborough, Ontario, Pippin Publishing.