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This refers to a feature of written and spoken discourse in which the writer/ speaker tones down the definiteness of what they are saying either as an expression of their unsureness or for interpersonal reasons. There are many linguistic items available to express hedging.
Some people don’t like appearing very definite in their opinions so they use expressions like: it could be/ maybe/ there’s a possibility that/to a certain extent/ arguably to hedge their opinions i.e. to soften the strength of the opinion they are expressing.
Bygate, M. (1987) Speaking. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hyland, K. (1994) Hedging in academic writing and EAF textbooks. English for Specific Purposes.13/3.
Thornbury, S. (2005). Beyond the Sentence. Oxford: MacMillan.
Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)
Thinking skills are often divided into higher order thinking skills (HOTS) and lower order thinking skills (LOTS). Higher order thinking skills include analysing, evaluating and creating. HOTS involve greater manipulation of information than LOTS do. The division of thinking skills into HOTS and LOTS was made initially in the late 1940s by a committee of educators in Boston, Mass. chaired by Benjamin Bloom and colleagues. This taxonomy (known as Bloom’s Taxonomy) has been revised several times.
"Teachers are sometimes criticised for asking too many low level LOTS questions in their classes and not asking enough HOTS questions which really challenge learners to think about the information they are given rather than just absorbing it passively."
Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., Airasian, P. W., Cruikshank, K. A., Mayer, R. E., Pintrich, P. R., Raths, J., Wittrock, M. C. (2000). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon.
Biggs, J. B. and Collis, K. (1982). Evaluating the Quality of Learning: the SOLO taxonomy. New York, Academic Press.
Bloom B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. New York: David McKay Co Inc.
Dale, L. and Tanner, R. (2012). CLIL Activities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hot correction is when the teacher (or a peer) corrects the learner during an activity. Cold correction is when the teacher presents the learners with their mistakes for correction after an activity has taken place.
We are often told to avoid hot correction as it interrupts learners’ fluency. But I think that a teacher can interrupt subtly by using gestures or facial expressions. Students can often relate to this kind of hot correction better than to the more detached presentation of their errors in cold correction at the end of an activity.
Bartram, M. and Walton, R. (1991) Correction. Stamford, CT: Cengage.
Li, S. (2014). Key Concepts in ELT: Oral Corrective Feedback. ELT Journal 68 (2): 196-198
Lightbown and Spada (2006). How languages are learned, 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Seidlhofer, B. (2011) Understanding English as a Lingua Franca: A Complete Introduction to the Theoretical Nature and Practical Implications of English used as a Lingua Franca. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
A hypernym is another word for the more common term superordinate. It is a word which is the name of a category for other words e.g. Gadget is a hypernym for mobile phone, pen drive, mouse, tablet, hand-help device.
Something I sometimes do with my class is ask them to go through their vocabulary records and find hypernyms (I don’t use that term with them!) for as many words as they can, or I give them some hypernyms and ask them to find words belonging to them. It seems to help them remember the words and consolidate their meaning.
Berry, R. (2010). Terminology in English Language Teaching: Nature and Use. Bern: Peter Lang.
Cook, V. (2013). Second Language Learning and Language Teaching. London: Routledge.
Hyponym is a term used to describe a lexical relationship between words. Hyponyms are the words that are examples of a particular category, for example, pens, pencils, paper, sellotape are all hyponyms of the category, stationery. Hyponyms form a large part of lexical sets.
At beginner and elementary level we often teach hyponyms of everyday categories such as members of the family, types of shop, items of clothing, days of the week, types of food, colours, types of leisure activities. At the end of last term I divided my class into groups and gave them each an area of vocabulary, a superordinate. They then drew mind maps, posters or other drawings with all the hyponyms they could think of for their area. They drew some great things, for example, people in national dress from different countries of the world to illustrate different items of clothing.
McCarthy, M. (1990). Vocabulary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nation, I.S.P.(2001).Learning Vocabulary in Another Language, Cambridge University Press.
Nation, I., (2000). Learning vocabulary in lexical sets: dangers and guidelines. TESOL Journal/9.
Thornbury, S. (2006). An A-Z of ELT. Oxford: Macmillan.
Yule, G. (2014). The Study of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.